Is the hadith that the prayer are answered at the time of breaking the fast is authentic?
It was narrated by Ibn Majah in his Sunan (1965) that Abdullah bin Abi Mulayka who said: I heard Abdullah bin Amr ibn al-Aas (may Allaah be pleased with him and his father) say: The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said:
Indeed for the fasting person is a supplication when breaking his fast which is not turned back…
From the reporters present in the chain of narration of the previous hadeeth is Isaac bin Ubaidillah who was deemed by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr in his book at-Taqreeb –under the latter’s biography- to be Ishaaq bin Ubaidillah bin Abi al-Muhajir who is majhool al-‘ayn (unknown).
Al-‘Alaamahtu al-Albani –may Allaah have mercy upon him- also declared the previous hadeeth to be weak in al-Irwaa hadeeth no. (921), as well as adh-Da’eef al-Jaami’ (1965).
Hence, the aforementioned hadeeth which indicates that the dua (supplication) is accepted specifically at the time the fasting person is breaking his fast is in fact weak.
Though the previous hadeeth is weak, it has been reported from our Messenger sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam that he stated that there are three supplications which are not rejected, and from them is the supplication of the one fasting.
Al-Imam Ahmed reported in his Musnad (2/304-305) on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam said:
There are three whose supplications are not turned back:
A just ruler, and a fasting person until he breaks his fast. And, the supplication of one who has been oppressed/wronged is raised by Allaah up to the clouds and the doors of heavens are opened for it, and Allah says,
“By My Might I will aid you (i.e. against the one who has wronged you) even if it is after a while.”
The hadeeth was graded authentic by al-Imam al-Waad’ee in as-Saheeh al-Musnad (1358).
Benefit: al-Imam an-Nawawi mentioned in al-Majmoo’ (6 /p.375):
It is recommended for the fasting person to supplicate while he is fasting for the important matters (which pertain to) the Hereafter and the worldly life. For himself and whomsoever he loves as well as the Muslims due to the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah who said the Messenger of Allah -Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam- said:
Three (categories of people) their supplications are not rejected:
The one fasting up until he breaks and just ruler and the one who is oppressed.”
Narrated by at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi said: a sound hadeeth … And this necessitates that the supplication of the one fasting is recommended FROM THE BEGINNIG OF THE DAY UP UNTIL THE END OF IT, because he (i.e. the fasting person) is referred to as sawim (someone who is fasting) throughout all of this (period). Allaah knows best.
Hence we benefit, that it is recommended for the fasting person to invoke and supplicate to Allaah subhanahu wa ta’aala throughout his day seeking from Him the goodness of this life as well as the Hereafter up until he breaks his fast, and that his supplication is not turned back or rejected. And Allaah knows best.
Answered by : Noble brother Abu ‘Atiyah Mahmood bin Muhammad